Men also wore these "Frisian blouses" on occasion. You are going to find awesome tops, skirts, dresses, blouses, shirts and lightweight cardigans made of lace fabric. Lecture notes, Physics One color that arises from two different spectral power distributions is called a metamerism.
Postclassical history art, the white lamb became the symbol of the sacrifice of Christ on behalf of mankind. John the Baptist described Christ as the lamb of God , who took the sins of the world upon himself. The white lamb was the center of one of the most famous paintings of the Medieval period, the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck. White was also the symbolic color of the transfiguration. The Gospel of Saint Mark describes Jesus' clothing in this event as "shining, exceeding white as snow.
In his painting of the transfiguration at the Convent of Saint Mark in Florence , Fra Angelico emphasized the white garment by using a light gold background, placed in an almond-shaped halo. The white unicorn was a common subject of Postclassical history manuscripts, paintings and tapestries. It was a symbol of purity, chastity and grace, which could only be captured by a virgin.
It was often portrayed in the lap of the Virgin Mary. During the Postclassical history, painters rarely ever mixed colors; but in the Renaissance, the influential humanist and scholar Leon Battista Alberti encouraged artists to add white to their colors to make them lighter, brighter, and to add hilaritas , or gaiety.
Many painters followed his advice, and the palette of the Renaissance was considerably brighter. Until the 16th century, white was commonly worn by widows as a color of mourning. The widows of the kings of France wore white until Anne of Brittany in the 16th century. A white tunic was also worn by many knights, along with a red cloak, which showed the knights were willing to give their blood for the king or Church. The monks of the order of Saint Benedict circa — first dressed in undyed white or gray wool robes, here shown in painting by Sodoma on the life of Saint Benedict They later changed to black robes, the color of humility and penitence.
Under Pope Pius V — , a former monk of the Dominican Order , white became the official color worn by the Pope. The white lamb in the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck.
The Transfiguration by Fra Angelico — White was the dominant color of architectural interiors in the Baroque period and especially the Rococo style that followed it in the 18th century. Church interiors were designed to show the power, glory and wealth of the church. They seemed to be alive, filled with curves, asymmetry, mirrors, gilding, statuary and reliefs, unified by white.
White was also a fashionable color for both men and women in the 18th century. Men in the aristocracy and upper classes wore powdered white wigs and white stockings, and women wore elaborate embroidered white and pastel gowns. After the French Revolution , a more austere white blanc cassé became the most fashionable color in women's costumes which were modeled after the outfits of Ancient Greece and Republican Rome.
Because of the rather revealing design of these dresses, the ladies wearing them were called les merveilleuses the marvellous by French men of that era. The dresses were high in fashion but low in warmth considering the more severe weather conditions of northern France; in the former wife of Napoleon, Joséphine de Beauharnais , caught pneumonia and died after taking a walk in the cold night air with Tsar Alexander I of Russia.
White was the universal color of both men and women's underwear and of sheets in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was unthinkable to have sheets or underwear of any other color. The reason was simple; the manner of washing linen in boiling water caused colors to fade. When linen was worn out, it was collected and turned into high-quality paper. The 19th-century American painter James McNeill Whistler — , working at the same time as the French impressionists, created a series of paintings with musical titles where he used color to create moods, the way composers used music.
His painting Symphony in White No. A highly theatrical white Rococo interior from the 18th century, at the Basilica at Ottobeuren , in Bavaria. President George Washington in a white powdered wig. The first five Presidents of the United States wore dark suits with powdered wigs for formal occasions.
Portrait of Joséphine de Beauharnais in a classic Empire gown, modeled after the clothing of ancient Rome. The State Hermitage Museum.
Symphony in White No. The White movement was the opposition that formed against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War , which followed the Russian Revolution in It was finally defeated by the Bolsheviks in —22, and many of its members emigrated to Europe.
At the end of the 19th century, lead white was still the most popular pigment; but between and , chemical companies in Norway and the United States began to produce titanium white , made from titanium oxide. It had first been identified in the 18th century by the German chemist Martin Klaproth , who also discovered uranium. It had twice the covering power of lead white, and was the brightest white pigment known.
By , 80 percent of the white pigments sold were titanium white. The absoluteness of white appealed to modernist painters. It was used in its simplest form by the Russian suprematist painter Kazimir Malevich in his painting 'the white square,' the companion to his earlier 'black square. His most famous paintings consisted of a pure white canvas with grid of vertical and horizontal black lines and rectangles of primary colors.
Black and white also appealed to modernist architects, such as Le Corbusier — He said a house was "a machine for living in" and called for a "calm and powerful architecture" built of reinforced concrete and steel, without any ornament or frills. The Villa Savoye —31 by Le Corbusier; Le Corbusier called for a "calm and powerful" architecture built of steel and reinforced concrete, without color or ornament.
Light is perceived by the human visual system as white when the incoming light to the eye stimulates all three types of color sensitive cone cells in the eye in roughly equal amounts. In the RGB color model , used to create colors on TV and computer screens, white is made by mixing red, blue and green light at full intensity.
White light refracted in a prism revealing the color components. In , Isaac Newton demonstrated that white light could be broken up into its composite colors by passing it through a prism , then using a second prism to reassemble them.
Before Newton, most scientists believed that white was the fundamental color of light. White light can be generated by the sun, by stars, or by earthbound sources such as fluorescent lamps, white LEDs and incandescent bulbs. On the screen of a color television or computer, white is produced by mixing the primary colors of light: White light can be fabricated using light with only two wavelengths, for instance by mixing light from a red and cyan laser or yellow and blue lasers.
This light will however have very few practical applications since color rendering of objects will be greatly distorted. The fact that light sources with vastly different spectral power distributions can result in a similar sensory experience is due to the way the light is processed by the visual system. One color that arises from two different spectral power distributions is called a metamerism. Many of the light sources that emit white light emit light at almost all visible wavelengths sun light, incandescent lamps of various Color temperatures.
This has led to the notion that white light can be defined as a mixture of "all colors" or "all visible wavelengths". Concluding that since "all colors" produce white light then white must be made up of "all colors" is a common logical error called affirming the consequent , which might be the cause of the misunderstanding.
A range of spectral distributions of light sources can be perceived as white—there is no single, unique specification of "white light". For example, when you buy a "white" light bulb, you might buy one labeled K, K, etc. Color vision allows us to distinguish different objects by their color. In order to do so, color constancy can keep the perceived color of an object relatively unchanged when the illumination changes among various broad whitish spectral distributions of light.
The same principle is used in photography and cinematography where the choice of white point determines a transformation of all other color stimuli.
Changes in or manipulation of the white point can be used to explain some optical illusions such as The dress. While there is no single, unique specification of "white light", there is indeed a unique specification of "white object", or, more specifically, "white surface". A perfectly white surface diffusely reflects scatters all visible light that strikes it, without absorbing any, irrespective of the light's wavelength or spectral distribution.
If the reflection is not diffuse but rather specular , this describes a mirror rather than a white surface. Color constancy is achieved by chromatic adaptation. The International Commission on Illumination defines white adapted as "a color stimulus that an observer who is [chromatically] adapted to the viewing environment would judge to be perfectly achromatic and to have a luminance factor of unity. The color stimulus that is considered to be the adapted white may be different at different locations within a scene.
Snow is composed of ice and air; it scatters or reflects sunlight without absorbing other colors of the spectrum. Cumulus clouds look white because the water droplets reflect and scatter the sunlight without absorbing other colors.
The White Cliffs of Dover , made of limestone. Hyams Beach , New South Wales appears white because the sunlight is reflected or scattered by the quartz or limestone sand. Beaches with sand containing high amounts of quartz or eroded limestone also appear white, since quartz and limestone reflect or scatter sunlight, rather than absorbing it.
Tropical white sand beaches may also have a high quantity of white calcium carbonate from tiny bits of seashells ground to fine sand by the action of the waves. The White Cliffs of Dover take their white color from the large amount of chalk , made of limestone , which they contain, which reflects the sunlight.
Snow is a mixture of air and tiny ice crystals. When white sunlight enters snow, very little of the spectrum is absorbed; almost all of the light is reflected or scattered by the air and water molecules, so the snow appears to be the color of sunlight, white. Sometimes the light bounces around inside the ice crystals before being scattered, making the snow seem to sparkle.
In the case of glaciers , the ice is more tightly pressed together and contains little air. As sunlight enters the ice, more light of the red spectrum is absorbed, so the light scattered will be bluish. Clouds are white for the same reason as ice. They are composed of water droplets or ice crystals mixed with air, very little light that strikes them is absorbed, and most of the light is scattered, appearing to the eye as white.
Shadows of other clouds above can make clouds look gray, and some clouds have their own shadow on the bottom of the cloud. Many mountains with winter or year-round snow cover are named accordingly: Changbai Mountains literally meaning perpetually white mountains , marks the border between China and Korea.
Titanium white, made with titanium dioxide , is the brightest white paint available. It also colors most toothpaste and sunscreen. Zinc white is made from zinc oxide. Zinc oxide is used in paints, suntan lotion, and breakfast cereals. Chalk is a kind of limestone , made of the mineral calcite , or calcium carbonate. It was originally deposited under the sea as the scales or plates of tiny micro-organisms called Coccolithophore.
It was the first white pigment used by prehistoric artists in cave paintings. The chalk used on blackboards today is usually made of gypsum or calcium sulphate, a powder pressed into sticks. Bianco di San Giovanni is a pigment used in the Renaissance, which was described by the painter Cennino Cennini in the 15th century.
It is similar to chalk, made of calcium carbonate with calcium hydroxide. It was made of dried lime which was made into a powder, then soaked in water for eight days, with the water changed each day. It was then made into cakes and dried in the sun. Lead white was being produced during the 4th century BC; the process is described is Pliny the Elder , Vitruvius and the ancient Greek author Theophrastus.
Pieces of lead were put into clay pots which had a separate compartment filled with vinegar. The pots in turn were piled on shelves close to cow dung.
The combined fumes of the vinegar and the cow dung caused the lead to corrode into lead carbonate. It was a slow process which could take a month or more. It made an excellent white and was used by artists for centuries, but it was also toxic. It was replaced in the 19th century by zinc white and titanium white. Titanium white is the most popular white for artists today; it is the brightest available white pigment, and has twice the coverage of lead white.
It first became commercially available in It is made out of titanium dioxide , from the minerals brookite , anatase , rutile , or ilmenite , currently the major source. Because of its brilliant whiteness, it is used as a colorant for most toothpaste and sunscreen. It is similar to but not as opaque as titanium white.
It is added to some breakfast cereals, [ citation needed ] since zinc is an important nutrient. Solid color with slight tapered fit, a Miller Coors logo patch on the left chest. Solid color with Bill embroidered above the right pocket and faint toned spots where logo patches had onc Military uniform style in a solid color with a sharp tapered fit. Fold over collar, two flap pockets with b Fold over collar, two patch pockets with button closure and rounded h Fold over collar, two patch pockets with button clo Fold over collar, three inset An embroidered anchor trimmed patch above the left pocket, a slightly tapered fit, button flappe A slightly tapered fit, button flapped and pleat accented chest pockets, button cuffs, shoulder e Although Elegant Plus earns a small fee on all purchases, it is a completely free shopping resource for the consumer, and many times we are able to provide links that offer consumer discounts and free shipping offers upon landing on the partner retailer's site.
All selections are available at time of posting and purchases can be made directly from the retailer on the associated shopping link. All of the shopping guides include designer selections which are noted with the designer's name in descriptions. Career tops and blouses come in a variety of sleeve lengths, cuts, and fabrics all year. Crisp tailored styles, soft jersey knits, and flowing chiffons all make good work choices.
Natural fibers such as silk , linen and cotton are becoming progressively more available in larger sizes. Necklines are often higher than on other top types. Modern classic styles are common choices in this category, although more creative office environments can leave room for trendier styles.
Price points range from budget conscious to upscale designer. While color palettes are frequently conservative in work and career wear, blouses are an opportunity to spice up the look of an outfit. Even tailored, classic black pants or skirt suits can be brightened up and updated with the right colored or patterned blouse.
Because tops are often layered under jackets and cardigans the visual impact can be more subtle than a bold color or patterned blouse worn alone. Use shirts and blouses to express your personal style, along with accessories such as bags, shoes, and jewelry. Working women who can spend on upscale, designer labels will find the largest depth of inventory in the major department stores, many of which only offer women's sizes on-line. Neiman Marcus regularly carries the hard-to-find heavy gauge, luxury knit label Misook popular with executives who travel, along with similarly simple silhouetted Eileen Fisher in natural luxury fibers.
Marina Rinaldi and Lafayette are both premium, luxury labels favored by upscale, full-figured women with generous budgets. Rounding out their offerings are other unusual labels including Caroline Rose which is more appropriate for creative office environments with its relaxed sophistication, and Joan Vass.
Sizing here is available up to 24W. Nordstrom carries an especially good selection of upscale designer labels for smaller plus women in the 12 to 16 size range out in their main selling section.
Look for classic to contemporary designs from Akris Punto , St. John , and Armani Collezioni appealing to busy, well heeled and fashionable executives. Dillard's and Macy's both offer more moderately priced career collections worth shopping.
Shop women's blouses and shirts at New York & Company. Choose from our dress, casual, and work collections, including the Madison Shirt, a favorite. Shop classy vintage, boho and diy style blouses online. Color of pattern blouses range from black, white and blue. White-Blue Long Sleeve Shift Work Striped Blouse. $ Quick Shop. Sicily. Shirt Collar Blouse Shift Daytime Long Sleeve Casual Chiffon Paneled Top. $ Quick Shop. Blouses are also great for your 'nine-to-five' needs! Whether your office is laid-back or business casual, don a classy, conservative blouse to show you mean business. Choose from structured collared shirts or elegant tie-neck blouses for a polished a ladylike look.